Politicians attribute Mexico to North America, and geographers give at least part of it to Central America. Be that as it may, Mexico, being in the heart of the American continent, is experiencing a tense increase in self-interest from the whole world. The reason is the ancient civilization of the Mayan people, whose legacy has for the most part been lost, but their messages from the depths of centuries become all the more mysterious and attractive.
Despite the fact that the Mayan kingdom, before Columbus discovered America, almost immediately perished as a result of decline and ruin in the war with neighboring tribes, and the fact that the conquistadors and missionaries consistently destroyed everything that could remind of the pagan culture of local peoples, Maya’s legacy (and not only Maya, but also the Aztecs, Olmecs, Toltecs and other peoples) was so great that people from all over planet Earth come to Mexico to look at preserved, but lost in the jungle and mountain ranges of the city, heated news that the Mayan calendar will soon end the account of the era. And if this country was a little closer, there would be even more curious ones, but for now many only from afar dream of Mayan pyramids in Mexico.
Ancient cities of the pyramids: Teotiucan and Chichen Itza
Near the metropolis of Mexico City is the abandoned stone city of Teotiucan, which, as it is believed, in antiquity (3rd-7th centuries A.D.) was also a kind of capital, exerting influence on neighboring areas, but for some inexplicable reason it was empty in its heyday. The city was carefully planned, between four impressive pyramids and dozens of smaller pyramids there was a huge square - the Citadel, on which the inhabitants of the ancient Mexican city of Teotihuacan gathered during religious ceremonies and sacrifices. The most ancient pyramids of Teotiucan are the pyramid of the Sun and the pyramid of the Moon. At the top of the first temple was once located, and in the bowels of the second a burial chamber was discovered with the remains of people and animals and jewelry.
The central part of Teotihucan is occupied by the Quetzalcoatl pyramid - in Mexico before Columbus it was the most revered god, who was depicted at different times and by different peoples in different ways. The main image of Quetzalcoatl is a feathered serpent. But later, judging by the preserved images on the walls of the temples and by mythology, he began to possess a human face - he was portrayed as a person with a white face, which allowed us to suggest that Europeans could visit Mesoamerica in ancient times (maybe Vikings), but this theory has no scientific confirmation.
Simultaneously with the sunset of Teotiucan, the heyday of another great Mayan city, Chichen Itza, which is located in the north of the Yucatan Peninsula, began. The streets, temples and pyramids of Chichen Itza in Mexico preserve the history of the Mayans and Toltecs, who successively owned the city. From the middle of the XI century, Chichen Itza became the capital of the Toltec state, however, this once great city was empty by the end of the XII century, and by the time the Spaniards arrived, it was already a ruin. Nevertheless, archaeologists have discovered for us many interesting places in Mexico that have been preserved underground. In Chichen Itza, it is the Temple of the Jaguars and the Temple of the Warriors, a Group of a thousand columns, several stadiums for playing ball, the Holy Cenote - a natural well with a diameter of 60 meters and a depth of 50 meters, where the Mayans dumped people as a sacrifice to the rain god Chuck, and the main miracle of the ancient cities - the Kukulkan pyramid.
The development of the cult of the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl led to the fact that other peoples of Mesoamerica began to revere this god as well, so they began to worship him under the name Kukulkan in Maya. As you know, the ancient Mayan shamans were well acquainted with astronomy, so that twice a year the Kukulkan pyramid in Chichen Itza, Mexico, there is a miracle: the shadows of the steps of the pyramid form the shape of a snake crawling along the stone balustrade of the stairs leading to the temple at its top. The total number of steps of the pyramid is 365 (91 steps on each side of it and another unifying platform that unites them), the number of large steps-sections corresponds to the number of Mayan months in the year - 18, and 52 reliefs on the walls of the purgatory crowning the pyramid, where rituals - the number of years in the calendar cycle. Thus, the pyramid itself is a calendar.
Not far from the city of Chichen Itza, a complex of natural caves in Mexico was discovered that were used by the ancient Mayans for ritual purposes - the worship of Tlaloc, the supreme god of rain. During the decline, they were walled up, which saved them from destruction. But at the moment only a small part of them has been discovered and excavated. So, on Yucatan a whole complex of artificial caves was found, with temples, underground roads and labyrinths.
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